Sunday, March 22, 2020

Role Model free essay sample

Role models are people who inspire others with their superior qualities and their commitment for a good cause. Here are some main characteristics of a role model. We will write a custom essay sample on Role Model or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Parents often tell their children about looking up to people who set good examples in their lives. Such people often end up being role models for youngsters or even adults and their habits are often emulated. Positive people can have a positive effect on the lives of others. These role models are often leaders with an optimistic approach towards life. Well, role models need not always be people from around the world but often; parents can also prove to be excellent role models for their children by helping them to imbibe good values in life. Here, we shall read about some of the main characteristics of a role model require to inspire people to follow their way. Humility is one of the characteristics you would need to look out for in a role model. Often, pop stars or even movie stars tend to influence the life of youngsters. Well, these are not exactly considered to be role models considering their behavior may not always inspire children to inculcate good habits. Humility in a person is extremely important as it shows the ability to be humble despite great achievements in life. A perfect role model would be one who respects others no matter his/her social status. Respect towards people would earn respect in return. The person who listens to others without being dictating in his/her approach would have all the factors to be successful in life. This may seem a very minute characteristic but it can surely make a major positive difference in life. An intelligent person can be noticed in the mannerisms and how a person handles issues on a daily basis. One of the characteristics of a role model is his/her level of intelligence. Intelligence is something that cannot be measured merely by grades but how the person uses his/her intelligence to succeed in life and help others in return. Good habits help to make a person better in life. Your role model should be having exemplary habits that should inspire you to improve yourself in life. Impeccable manners and kindness towards people are some characteristics that should be present in the role model you probably look up to. Commitment to a good cause is so very important in our lives. There are many people who have dedicated their lives to others. There are people who have overcome all adversities in life and have excelled despite all the odds. These people have not only gone ahead in life but have helped others to improve their condition of life as well. A role model should therefore be a complete inspiration for others in terms of his/her work towards the society. Role models should always have a sense of integrity with strong values. A positive minded person who is loaded with enthusiasm can surely prove to be the best role model one can have in life! Examples of people who have always been role models Mother Teresa Helen Keller Mahatma Gandhi Florence Nightingale Harriet Tubman Albert Einstein Bill Gates Role Model free essay sample Dr King is my role model because he fought to change my history. Dr King didn’t only want to see a change happen for his self and others but also for his family. He had a wife Coretta and four children; these were the people who he wanted to see change happen for the most. After King’s death is family wanted to keep his legacy alive because they knew he stood for a good cause. According to the article A king family tribute â€Å"Family and friends remember Dr. King as a role model and dedicate themselves to his mission. Watkins, Dr. Kings niece, has assembled their writings and excerpts from their speeches. All pay tribute to his spirit, abiding faith and dedication to the cause of civil rights, and they affirm their own commitment to following the path he walked, as his nephew, Derek B. King, states. Kings fathers remarks are excerpted from his autobiography. We will write a custom essay sample on Role Model or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Dr King is my personal role model because is stood for what he believed in. Dr king helped shape my worldview because through his hard work he’s shown me that nothing worth fighting for comes easy. I think a lot of people look over the fact that Dr King wasn’t just trying to change the race problem it stood of many different social issues. In the article Martin Luther King Jr conception of freedom and radical democracy the author states that â€Å"king came to believe that the civil rights struggle needed to expand beyond just racial desegregation in this country, He began to raise his voice against racism militarism, and economic exploitation around the world†. This is another reason why I look up to him because he didn’t only focus on one hing that needed to be changed so saw the importance of these issues and wanted to change them. Dr. king had a career as a pastor which is why I feel he never gave up believing in what he thought was right. The article Martin Luther King cover story gives background on his life â€Å"King was a preacher who spoke in biblical cadences ideally suited to leading a stride toward freedom that found its inspiration in the Old Testament story of the Israelites and the New Testament gospel of Jesus Christ. Being a minister not only put King in touch with the spirit of the black masses but also gave him a base within the black church, then and now the strongest and most independent of black institutions†. Like Dr King I believe that everyone should have the right to freedom and equal rights ; However, I don’t know if I could have endured the things that Dr king had to. Once Dr King was thrown in jail because of his protest, I think if I knew I could go to jail because I was protesting I wouldn’t protest. On the other Dr King who have pathed the way for me to be able to use my freedom of speech. I would want to be brave and stand for what I believe in for myself and my family just as King did. Reference MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. A King Family Tribute. (2012). Kirkus Reviews, 80(24), 222. Orosco, J. M. (2001). Martin Luther King, Jr. ’s Conception of Freedom and Radical Democracy. Journal Of Social Philosophy, 32(4), 386-401. White, J. E. (1998). Martin Luther King. (Cover story). Time, 151(14), 160.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Influence of the Olmec Civilization on Mesoamerica

Influence of the Olmec Civilization on Mesoamerica The Olmec civilization thrived along Mexicos gulf coast from approximately 1200-400 B.C. and is considered the parent culture of many of the important Mesoamerican cultures that came after, including the Aztec and Maya. From their great cities, San Lorenzo and La Venta, Olmec traders spread their culture far and wide and eventually built a large network through Mesoamerica. Although many aspects of Olmec culture have been lost to time, what little is known about them is very important because their influence was so great. Olmec Trade and Commerce Before the dawn of the Olmec civilization, trade in Mesoamerica was common. Highly desirable items like obsidian knives, animal skins, and salt were routinely traded between neighboring cultures. The Olmecs created long-distance trade routes to obtain the things they needed, eventually making contacts all the way from the valley of Mexico to Central America. Olmec traders swapped finely made Olmec celts, masks and other small pieces of art with other cultures such as the Mokaya and Tlatilco, getting jadeite, serpentine, obsidian, salt, cacao, pretty feathers and more in return. These extensive trade networks spread Olmec culture far and wide, spreading Olmec influence throughout Mesoamerica. Olmec Religion The Olmec had a well-developed religion and belief in a cosmos comprised of an underworld (represented by the Olmec fish monster), the Earth (Olmec Dragon) and skies (bird monster). They had elaborate ceremonial centers: the well-preserved Complex A at La Venta is the best example. Much of their art is based on their religion, and it is from surviving pieces of Olmec art that researchers have managed to identify no fewer than eight different Olmec gods. Many of these early Olmec gods, such as the Feathered Serpent, the maize god, and the rain god, found their way into the mythology of later civilizations such as the Maya and Aztecs. Mexican researcher and artist Miguel Covarrubias made a famous diagram of how different Mesoamerican divine images all diverged from an early Olmec source. Olmec Mythology: Apart from the religious aspects of Olmec society mentioned above, Olmec mythology seems to have caught on with other cultures as well. The Olmecs were fascinated with were-jaguars, or human-jaguar hybrids: some Olmec art has caused speculation that they believed that some human-jaguar cross-breeding had once taken place, and depictions of fierce were-jaguar babies are a staple of Olmec art. Later cultures would continue the human-jaguar obsession: one good example is the jaguar warriors of the Aztec. Also, at the El Azuzul site near San Lorenzo, a pair of extremely similar statues of young men placed with a pair of jaguar statues brings to mind the two pairs of hero twins whose adventures are narrated in the Popol Vuh, known as the Maya bible. Although there are no confirmed courts used for the famous Mesoamerican ballgame at Olmec sites, rubber balls used for the game were unearthed at El Manatà ­. Olmec Art: Artistically speaking, the Olmec were far ahead of their time: their art shows a skill and aesthetic sense far greater than that of contemporary civilizations. The Olmec produced celts, cave paintings, statues, wooden busts, statues, figurines, stelae and much more, but their most famous artistic legacy is doubtless the colossal heads. These giant heads, some of which stand nearly ten feet tall, are striking in their artwork and majesty. Although the colossal heads never caught on with other cultures, Olmec art was very influential on the civilizations that followed it. Olmec stelae, such as La Venta Monument 19, can be indistinguishable from Mayan art to the untrained eye. Certain subjects, such as plumed serpents, also made the transition from Olmec art to that of other societies. Engineering and Intellectual Accomplishments: The Olmec were the first great engineers of Mesoamerica. There is an aqueduct at San Lorenzo, carved out of dozens of massive stones then laid side-by side. The royal compound at La Venta shows engineering as well: the massive offerings of Complex A are complicated pits filled with stones, clay, and supporting walls, and there is a tomb there built with basalt support columns. The Olmec may have given Mesoamerica its first written language as well. Undecipherable designs on certain pieces of Olmec stonework may be early glyphs: later societies, such as the Maya, would have elaborate languages using glyphic writing and would even develop books. As the Olmec culture faded into the Epi-Olmec society seen in the Tres Zapotes site, the people developed an interest in the calendar and astronomy, two other fundamental building blocks of Mesoamerican society. Olmec Influence and Mesoamerica: Researchers who study ancient societies embrace something called the continuity hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that there has been a set of religious and cultural beliefs and norms in place in Mesoamerica that has run through all of the societies that lived there and that information from one society can often be used to fill in the gaps left in others. The Olmec society then becomes particularly important. As the parent culture - or at least one of the most important early formative cultures of the region - it had influence out of proportion with, say, its military might or prowess as a trading nation. Olmec pieces that give some information about the gods, society or have a bit of writing on them - such as the famous Las Limas Monument 1 - are particularly prized by researchers. Sources: Coe, Michael D and Rex Koontz. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. 6th Edition. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2008 Cyphers, Ann. Surgimiento y decadencia de San Lorenzo, Veracruz. Arqueologà ­a Mexicana Vol XV - Num. 87 (Sept-Oct 2007). P. 30-35. Diehl, Richard A. The Olmecs: Americas First Civilization. London: Thames and Hudson, 2004. Grove, David C. Cerros Sagradas Olmecas. Trans. Elisa Ramirez. Arqueologà ­a Mexicana Vol XV - Num. 87 (Sept-Oct 2007). P. 30-35. Gonzalez Tauck, Rebecca B. El Complejo A: La Venta, Tabasco Arqueologà ­a Mexicana Vol XV - Num. 87 (Sept-Oct 2007). p. 49-54.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Why is Food Exchanged with Hindu Gods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Why is Food Exchanged with Hindu Gods - Essay Example This is known as Prasad, which means mercy or the divine grace from god. The food offered to the deities is said to bestow religious merit, purifying body, mind and spirit. One of the rituals performed in Hinduism is known as puja. It is an offering done to various deities or special guests. It is done in variety of occasions and settings, but it is mainly performed at home or in public temples. However, Puja has different ritual performances, which basically, exhibit the same structure. Pitar pak, a family rite consisting of simple rituals andinvolves a few participants (Babb 34). The matar festival in whichtheparticipants’ number are in hundreds unlike the pitar Pak. Singing Bhajan and a domestic puja called saptashati path. These ceremonies are performed to persuade deities to grant favors that the worshipper is seeking. Food offering is the central feature of the rituals Hindus perform. Otherwise, without food offering, the ritual would simply not be Puja in the convention al sense of the term. Food is offered to the deity and in turn, the deity in some way partakes of the offering. Sometimes, the consumption of the food is symbolized physically, like in homa where the food is consumed by the fire. Other times the food is set before the god often behind a concealing cloth. In both cases, it is assumed that the deity actually partakes of the food. If the deity does eat the food placed on the altar, the leftover is then taken back for distribution. Upon eating this food, the participants are giving the most profound honor to the god. Therefore, the exchange of food in puja is in consonance with general principles that order Hindu life. More so, it shows that the food exchange that takes place in puja is a necessary pattern of human interaction with the gods. In presenting the food, the deities are paid for the past of future favors. Apart from the food, offering of clothing, money, and precious metals are used to pay the deities. The deities are suppose d to be given expensive type of foods, and if simple, they are usually prepared under stringent conditions of purity, which is the universal rule of Hindu ceremonialism (Babb 47). Rituals should be performed to honor god and at the same time to pay the god for all the favors. Several rituals in Hinduism are associated with food. For example, when a child feeds for the first time, it is celebrated as Samskara known as annaprasana. The funeral rite involves offering food to the departed soul. Devout Hindus observe some rituals before eating it. They sprinkle water around the food to purify it and make it worthy to the gods. In addition, they clean the place first because Hindu law books proscribe eating food in dirty places. They offer food to their personal gods before eating. In doing so, one’s body becomes a sacrificial alter. It is also believed that offering the gods food is a mark of self-devotion. As stipulated in the Hindu scriptures, anyone who offers food to gods befo re eating it come to no harm as the qualities in the food are neutralized by their positive energies. Therefore, it is important that the food is presented to â€Å"temple† where the gods are waiting on their altars (Yalman 293) The Hinduism community in honor of the gods holds different festivals, for example, the Annakuta festival. Annakuta literally means, â€Å"A hill of food†. On this day, worshippers offer Krishna great varieties and large quantities of vegetarian food. It is a celebration of an event in Krishna’s life. He lifted the mountain of Govardhan for seven days to protect people against the deluge of rain sent by the god of heavens and rains, and that is why Hindus celebrate this day (Toomey 123). They prepare hundreds of different food and take them to the

Monday, February 3, 2020

Battle of Mogadishu (Black Hawk Down) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Battle of Mogadishu (Black Hawk Down) - Essay Example The mission aimed to abduct several top lieutenants and significantly warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid then return to base. The operation intended to last for 90 minutes. The work provides insightful and original analysis of the commander’s performance, based on establishing cohesive teams through mutual trust, use of mission orders, and accepting prudent risk. On 3rd October 1993, Task Force Ranger, U.S. Special Operations Forces comprised of Bravo Company 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (better known as â€Å"Delta Force†) operators, and the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), (â€Å"The Night Stalkers†), attempted to capture Aidid’s foreign minister Omar Salad Elmi and his top political advisor, Mohamed Hassan Awale. The Special Forces elements involved lightly armed warriors fielding submarine guns, automatic rifles, and light machine guns1. Delta Forces members had variety ofi assault rifles whilst Army Rangers depended on the support of squad-level, small-caliber machine guns in the M60 and M249 SAW. In addition, Heavily-caliber, vehicle-mounted 0.50 quality weapons were on lightly armored HUMVEE vehicles. However, main line of heavy support lay in the air cover provided by Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk medium transport and Hughes OH-6 â€Å"Little Bird† light helicopters. The Black Hawks outfitted a pair of 0.50-caliber heavy machine guns while; â€Å"Little Birds† fielded a collection of mini-guns, rocket pods, or M60 machine guns as needed. The Somali militias used AK-47s, rocket propelled grenade launchers (RPG-7), automatic rifles. They convoyed in improvised fighting vehicles. During this period, the Somali guerillas gained several tactical advantages over the US Special Forces. First, the Somali militias engaged on familiar grounds, leaders could muster an Army of several thousand men, and boys in short order. Second, their civilian appearance

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Marxist critique of capitalism

The Marxist critique of capitalism Marx critique of capitalism has been, and in certain respects, remains important in the development of global economies. Marxs critique of capitalism stems from his view that capitalism is a wonderful innovation, but immorally exploitative. Therefore the Marxist critique of capitalism aims to justify this point and provide an alternate form of economic and political system. Yet does Marx succeed in providing an effective critique of capitalism? Or has the collapse of the Soviet Union and mass global capitalism bring with it the end of official, public discourse about Marxism? Or has the recent financial recession rejuvenated the Marxist critique of capitalism? These questions require answers in order to reach a conclusion on whether the Marxist critique is accurate and still applicable to capitalism. Marx critique of capitalism has not only had an impact on the discipline of philosophy and economics, but also an impact upon the globalised world. Marx was a character influenced by the prominent writers of his time, most notable Fredrich Hegel. Marx began his academic writings with a critique of Hegels theory of the Spirit and continued to criticise Hegels idea that the state is above civil society. In 1884 Marx began to apply his philosophy to the analysis of economic life. Marx wrote in the Paris Manuscripts Religion occurs only in the realm of the consciousness, but economy alienation is that of real life; it transcendences therefore covers both aspects(Hughes 2003 :). Marx was critical of economic doctrines of his day, arguing that they confused a particular historical situation for the natural, universal condition of humanity. Marx argued that political economist theories failed as they assumed the actual fact of capitalist production, rather than seeing it as one particular a nd historically specific form of production (Hughes 2003 :). Marx idea of capitalism is a historically specific mode of production, in which capital is the means of production. For Marx this production cannot be defined by technology, but in the way production is owned or controlled, and by the social relationships between each individual characterised by the process of this production. This suggests that social and historical development can be explained in means of economic and class factors. In the eyes of Marx economic factors are based on the idea of exchange, and that exchange in capitalism takes form in the exchange of property. Private property is an essential feature of capitalism. Marx critiques the capitalist notion that the notion of Private Property is the rational system for Exchange. Marx stresses that private property is only maintained in capitalist societies by an elaborate system of laws supported by the power of the state (Hughes 2003 :). For free market capitalist such as Adam Smith it is the acquisition of private property that motivates people to produce wealth, but this acquisition will bring about the breakdown of genuine social relationships (Hughes 2003 :). Why does Marx believe this? The answer Marx gives is a logical one; ones persons ownership of an object denies its benefits to another creating conflict and producing fierce competition over resources*. Marx explains that in the case when property is actually the product of anothers work, it becomes human alienation. In such a scenario under capitalism, labour is effectively reduced to a mere commodity and work becomes depersonalised*. In this view workers efforts enrich and empower those who oppress them, the capitalist, alienated from their product and processes of their labour and ultimately, from themselves as creative and social beings* (Heywood). Marx believes that humans are unique in that we have the capacity to control the environment and create wealth from it. Examples of humans efforts exemplify this point; humans have built houses instead of sheltering in caves, constructed dams to produce hydro electricity. These are to name a few examples were humans have changed the environment to benefit general welfare. Activity of work has a special significance essential to human beings, yet under the conditions of alienated labour this is denied. The capitalist argument that private property motivates is rendered by Marx as simply a consequence of alienated labour. Alienated Labour is important in understanding Marx critique of capitalism, yet more central to Marx critique of capitalism is class struggle. Marx views the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles (Marx and Engels 1985:79). In a capitalist society division arises from the existence of private property. There is division between the bourgeoisie, the owners of the means of production, and the proletariat, a class of labourers who live only so long as they find workthese labourers, who must sell themselves piecemeal, are a commodity (Marx and Engels 1985:83). In previous and contemporary societies this division is evident. Institutes such as universities reinforce these divisions, for example Oxbridge caters to those more bourgeoisie and polytechnics cater to those proletariat in society. The bourgeoisie is the ruling class, not only by economic power through the ownership of wealth, but by also wielding political power. The bourgeoisie, since establi shment of modern industry, has established exclusive political sway in form of a modern representative state. The state is a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie (Marx and Engels 1985:83). For Marx the relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat is one of irreconcilable conflict, in that the proletariat is necessarily and systematically exploited under capitalism*. Marx believed that labour is the only real source of wealth. Capital itself; land factories, ports, railroads, etc.; represents simply stored labour, since it was, at some point, constructed by wage employees (website objectivistcenter.org).Thus in search of profit the capitalist extract this surplus value by paying the workers less than the value of their labour*. As a result unstabliluty defines capitalism, as the proletariat cannot be permanently reconciled to exploitation and oppression (Heywood 2007:56). Marx believed that the oppression inbuilt into capitalism consequently means that it will be its own grave digger. Marx believed that a serious crisis of overproduction will bring forth a proletarian revolution. The revolution against bourgeoisie goes through stages of development. Firstly, class struggle against the Bourgeoisie is not targeted against Bourgeois conditions of product but against the individual who exploits the individual member of the Proletariat; or it may take the form of attack on the means of production, for example smashing machinery**notes. But with the development of industry the proletariat not only increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength grows, and it feels that strength more (Marx and Engels 1985:89). This allows the proletariat to form a class, an identity, a collective consciousness. The ever-expanding union of workers forms one character and this mobilizes into a national struggle; the proletariat against the bourgeoisie. Marx proclaimed that this proletarian revolution was inevitable, beginning with the seizure of the means of production, the dictatorship of the proletariat in order to contain a counter-revolution and then the eventual peaceful transition to socialism. Marx argued that eventually class antagonism would fade and a fully communist society would come into existence and the proletarian state would wither away. A communist society would eradicate all private property; all property would be owned in common by all. It would be a classless society. Commodity production would be replaced by one of production for use geared to the satisfaction of genuine human needs* heywood. With this Marx argues, The prehistory of man would come to an end, allowing human beings for th e first time to realise their full potential (Heywood 2007:57). Marx writings have developed major ideas which have come to be regarded as the foundations of Marxist thought. Nonetheless Marx political and economic critique on capitalism has come under scrutiny from a variety of academics. A problem with Marx critique is the adoption of the labour theory of value. Marx refusal to accept anything other than the theory that humans are the only source that can add value to raw materials leads to complications. If only humans can add value then what of automated machines that produce value or at the minimum cooperate with humans to create value. If we were not to diverge from Marx argument, it must be concluded that no value is added by such machines. Therefore machines that produce uranium enriched nuclear power providing electricity for millions would have added no value. To conclude this would be illogical as such machines do add value, as they benefit human wellbeing. Further, sheer physical force and labour are of no use if not directed. Amanda Bissell argues that though it is true that labor is needed to construct factories, but throwing a 100 directionless men into a lot with some steel girders, tools and their muscle and with no plan, no blueprint, or leadership will not yield anything that contributes meaningful to production (website as of before). Capitalist provides such direction. Marx inability to understand private property as indispensible to human freedom further weakens his critique of capitalism. Marx critique of capitalism would place the ownership or the control of capital in the hands of those whom hold political power*. Marx solution to capitalism would thus combine economic and political power, the two major sources of power. Louis Kelsos in his Critique of Karl MarxsDas Kapital highlights that If the factory owners of the nineteenth century, having political influence but not unlimited political power, were in a position to exploit the workers, the bureaucrats of the twentieth century in a socialised state, possessing both unlimited economic and political through ownership of the instruments of production, are infinitely better equipped to exploit workers and other non-bureaucrats (Website one with three critiques). The exploitation of a socialised state is illustrated by the Soviet Union. The crumbling of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the swift collapse of the Soviet Union that followed was viewed as a global triumph for free market capitalism. The rise of Neo-liberal economic policies in the 1970s changed the international economic, social and political landscapes. Neo-liberal economic policies have earmarked the monetary union in Europe and the continued growth of Japan and the emergence of South Korea and Singapore as economic forces. Both these factors lead academics to cite that Marxism is dead, that Marxism is no longer a viable theory, or politics for the present age (whither Marxism). Francis Fukuyama in his acclaimed End of History argued that Marxism failed in that it sought to promote in extreme form of social equality at the expense of liberty, by eliminating natural inequalities through the reward not of talent but of need, and through the attempt to abolish division of labor (Fukuyam 1992:273). For Fukuyama free market capitalism provides the perfect trade -off point between liberty and equality. Fukuyama argument is a compelling argument. Over the latter half of the twentieth century capitalism has changed significantly from the capitalism that Marx critiqued in the ninetieth century. Marx in his critique of capitalism makes no reference to the States economic, or its social and political role. Trade unions emerged in the twentieth century as an important and recognised party in the wage bargain. In the ninetieth century trade unions did have not have such an importance on the political and economic factors in the capitalist society. Similarly under capitalist systems universal suffrage has been achieved, allowing all influence on matters of the economy, even at some small level. Universal suffrage has allowed for the rise of social democratic parties across Europe, whose policies have sought to address the redistributive inequalities experienced in capitalism. Welfare systems, social housing and social unemployment relief are to mention a few of the redistributive measures taken by socialist democratic parties. Neo-Marxists express an alternative argument regarding the collapse of Soviet Union and its effects on Marxism. The conditions for the proletarian revolution to occur and for communism to be established, were different from those economic and social conditions of early twentieth century Russia. Marx believed that the revolution would occur in an industrial nation like Britain, a nation with both national and global industry. Russia was not an industrialised nation to this extent in the early twentieth century, and therefore a Marxian communist society was never established under the Soviet Union. Kellner points out, Marxism has been traditionally a theory of class, one which defines the concept of class based on different power groupings. The fact that the Soviet Union collapsed can ultimately be traced to the corruption and bureaucratisation of it ruling class. It never overcame the problem of alienated labour (Magnus and Cullenberg 1995:4). Zhang Longxi in a similar vein views comm unism under the Soviet Union as dead, but Marxism as a theory is very much alive (Magnus and Cullenberg 1995:5). After examining the Marxist critique of capitalism it can be concluded that the critique of capitalism was a critique of ninetieth century capitalism, which can no longer apply to contemporary capitalism. Capitalism for the most part of the twentieth century has evolved to meet the needs of popular demand. Class antagonism is not the same as Marx described, there is no longer a fierce class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, class de-alignment has taken hold of Western capitalist societies. Neo liberalism has become dominant throughout the globe. It is no longer just Western Capitalist societies that have adapted the neo-liberal free market approach to economics but also developing countries. Despite inequality still arising within free market capitalism, opportunity is also created. Free trade allows for growth and increases a nations prosperity. The recent global financial crash has propelled Marxs critique back to the forefront of political debate. Yet capitalis m still prevails, but what occur from its failings are new developments to these failings created by capitalism. Obama healthcare package in the United States, a traditional strict free market capitalist society, is evident to this fact. Marx critique of capitalism thus underestimated the ability for capitalism to restructure itself. Bibliography Ryner, J. (2000) Capitalist Restructuring, Globalisation and the Third Way: Lessons from the Sweedish model, London; Routledge Magun, B, Cullenberg, S. (1995) Whither Marxism? Global Crises in International Perspective, London; Routledge Heywood, A. (2007) Foundations in Politics, Basingstoke; Palgrave Macmillan Marx, K, Engels, F. (1985) The Communist Manifesto; with an Introduction by A.J.P Taylor, London; Penguin Fukuyama, F (1992) The End of History and The Last Man, Harmondsworth; Penguin Hughes, J. (2003) Understanding Classical Sociology, London; Sage Publications Websites http://www.cesj.org/thirdway/almostcapitalist.htm http://objectivistcenter.org/cth1298-Marxs_Surplus_Value_Theory.aspx The Marxist Critique Of Capitalism The Marxist Critique Of Capitalism Marx critique of capitalism has been, and in certain respects, remains important in the development of global economies. Marxs theory stems from his view that capitalism is a wonderful innovation, but immorally exploitative. Therefore the Marxist critique of capitalism aims to justify this point and provide an alternate form of economic and political system. Yet does Marx succeed in providing an effective critique of capitalism? Or has the collapse of the Soviet Union and mass global capitalism bring with it the end of official, public discourse about Marxism? Or has the recent financial recession rejuvenated the Marxist critique of capitalism? These questions require answers in order to reach a conclusion on whether the Marxist critique is accurate and still applicable to capitalism. Marx critique of capitalism has not only had an impact on the discipline of philosophy and economics, but also an impact upon the globalised world. Marx was a character influenced by the prominent writers of his time, most notable Fredrich Hegel. Marx began his academic writings with a critique of Hegels theory of the Spirit and continued to criticise Hegels idea that the state is above civil society. In 1884 Marx began to apply his philosophy to the analysis of economic life. Marx wrote in the Paris Manuscripts â€Å"Religion occurs only in the realm of the consciousness, but economy alienation is that of real life; it transcendences therefore covers both aspects† (Hughes 2003 :). Marx was critical of economic doctrines of his day, arguing that they confused a particular historical situation for the natural, universal condition of humanity. Marx argued that political economist theories failed as they â€Å"assumed the actual fact of capitalist production, rather than seeing it as one particular and historically specific form of production† (Hughes 2003 :). Marx idea of capitalism is a historically specific mode of production, in which capital is the means of production. For Marx this production cannot be defined by technology, but in the way production is owned or controlled, and by the social relationships between each individual characterised by the process of this production. This suggests that social and historical development can be explained in means of economic and class factors. In the eyes of Marx economic factors are based on the idea of exchange, and that exchange in capitalism takes form in the exchange of property. Private property is an essential feature of capitalism. Marx critiques the capitalist notion that the notion of ‘Private Property is the rational system for Exchange. Marx stresses that â€Å"private property is only maintained in capitalist societies by an elaborate system of laws supported by the power of the state† (Hughes 2003 :). For free market capitalist such as Adam Smith it is the acquisition of private property that motivates people to produce wealth, but this acquisition will bring about the â€Å"breakdown of genuine social relationships† (Hughes 2003 :). Why does Marx believe this? The answer Marx gives is a logical one; ones persons ownership of an object denies its benefits to another creating conflict and producing fierce competition over resources. Marx explains that in the case when property is actually the product of anothers work, it becomes human alienation. In such a scenario under capitalism, labour is effectively reduced to a mere commodity and work becomes depersonalised. In this view workers efforts enrich and empower those who oppress them, the capitalist, alienated from their product and processes of their labour and ultimately, from themselves as â€Å"creative and social beings† (Heywood 2007:56). Marx believes that humans are unique in that we have the capacity to control the environment and create wealth from it. Examples of humans efforts exemplify this point; humans have built houses instead of sheltering in caves, constructed dams to produce hydro electricity. These are to name a few examples were humans have changed the environment to benefit general welfare. Activity of work has a special significance essential to human beings, yet under the conditions of alienated labour this is denied. The capitalist argument that private property motivates is rendered by Marx as simply a consequence of alienated labour. Alienated Labour is important in understanding Marx critique of capitalism, yet more central to Marx critique of capitalism is class struggle. Marx views â€Å"the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles† (Marx and Engels 1985:79). In a capitalist society division arises from the existence of private property. There is division between the bourgeoisie, the owners of the means of production, and the proletariat, â€Å"a class of labourers who live only so long as they find workthese labourers, who must sell themselves piecemeal, are a commodity† (Marx and Engels 1985:83). In previous and contemporary societies this division is evident. Institutes such as universities reinforce these divisions, for example Oxbridge caters to those more ‘bourgeoisie and polytechnics cater to those ‘proletariat in society. The bourgeoisie is the ruling class, not only by economic power through the ownership of wealth, but by also wielding polit ical power. The bourgeoisie, since establishment of modern industry, has established exclusive political sway in form of a modern representative state. The state is â€Å"a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie† (Marx and Engels 1985:83). For Marx the relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat is one of irreconcilable conflict, in that the proletariat is necessarily and systematically exploited under capitalism. Marx believed that labour is the only real source of wealth. Capital itself; â€Å"land factories, ports, railroads, etc.; represents simply stored labour, since it was, at some point, constructed by wage employees† (http://objectivistcenter.org/cth1298-Marxs_Surplus_Value_Theory.aspx 24/03/2010).Thus in search of profit the capitalist extract this surplus value by paying the workers less than the value of their labour. As a result instability defines capitalism, as the â€Å"proletariat cannot be permanently reconciled to exploitation and oppression† (Heywood 2007:56). Marx believed that the oppression inbuilt into capitalism consequently means that it will be its own grave digger. Marx believed that a serious crisis of overproduction will bring forth a proletarian revolution. The revolution against bourgeoisie goes through stages of development. Firstly, class struggle against the Bourgeoisie is not targeted against Bourgeois conditions of product but against the individual who exploits the individual member of the Proletariat; or it may take the form of attack on the means of production, for example smashing machinery. But with the development of industry the â€Å"proletariat not only increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength grows, and it feels that strength more† (Marx and Engels 1985:89). This allows the proletariat to form a class, an identity, a collective consciousness. The ever-expanding union of workers forms one character and this mobilizes into a national struggle; the proletariat against the bourgeoisie. Marx proclaimed that this proletarian revolution was inevitable, beginning with the seizure of the means of production, the dictatorship of the proletariat in order to contain a counter-revolution and then the eventual peaceful transition to socialism. Marx argued that eventually class antagonism would fade and a fully communist society would come into existence and the proletarian state would wither away. A communist society would eradicate all private property; all property would be owned in common by all. It would be a classless society. Commodity production would be replaced by one of production for use geared to the satisfaction of genuine human needs. With this Marx argues, â€Å"The prehistory of man would come to an end, allowing human beings for the first time to realise their full potential† (Heywood 2007:57). Marx writings have developed major ideas which have come to be regarded as the foundations of Marxist thought. Nonetheless Marx political and economic critique on capitalism has come under scrutiny from a variety of academics. A problem with Marx critique is the adoption of the labour theory of value. Marx refusal to accept anything other than the theory that humans are the only source that can add value to raw materials leads to complications. If only humans can add value then what of automated machines that produce value or at the minimum cooperate with humans to create value. If we were not to diverge from Marx argument, it must be concluded that no value is added by such machines. Therefore machines that produce uranium enriched nuclear power providing electricity for millions would have added no value. To conclude this would be illogical as such machines do add value, as they benefit human wellbeing. Further, sheer physical force and labour are of no use if not directed. Amanda Bissell argues that â€Å"though it is true that labor is needed to construct factories, but throwing a 100 directionless men into a lot with some steel girders, tools and their muscle and with no plan, no blueprint, or leadership will not yield anything that contributes meaningful to production† (http://objectivistcenter.org/cth1298-Marxs_Surplus_Value_Theory.aspx 24/03/2010). Capitalist provides such direction. Marx inability to understand private property as indispensible to human freedom further weakens his critique of capitalism. Marx critique of capitalism would place the ownership or the control of capital in the hands of those whom hold political power. Marx solution to capitalism would thus combine economic and political power, the two major sources of power. Louis Kelsos in his Critique of Karl MarxsDas Kapital highlights that â€Å"If the factory owners of the nineteenth century, having political influence but not unlimited political power, were in a position to exploit the workers, the bureaucrats of the twentieth century in a socialised state, possessing both unlimited economic and political through ownership of the instruments of production, are infinitely better equipped to exploit workers and other non-bureaucrats† (http://www.cesj.org/thirdway/almostcapitalist.htm 24/03/2010). The exploitation of a socialised state is illustrated by the Soviet Union. The crumbling of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the swift collapse of the Soviet Union that followed was viewed as a global triumph for free market capitalism. The rise of Neo-liberal economic policies in the 1970s changed the international economic, social and political landscapes. Neo-liberal economic policies have earmarked the monetary union in Europe and the continued growth of Japan and the emergence of South Korea and Singapore as economic forces. Both these factors lead academics to cite that â€Å"Marxism is dead, that Marxism is no longer a viable theory, or politics for the present age† (whither Marxism). Francis Fukuyama in his acclaimed ‘End of History argued that â€Å"Marxism failed in that it sought to promote in extreme form of social equality at the expense of liberty, by eliminating natural inequalities through the reward not of talent but of need, and through the attempt to abolish division of labor† (Fukuyam 1992:273). For Fukuyama free market ca pitalism provides the perfect trade-off point between liberty and equality. Fukuyama argument is a compelling argument. Over the latter half of the twentieth century capitalism has changed significantly from the capitalism that Marx critiqued in the ninetieth century. Marx in his critique of capitalism makes no reference to the States economic, or its social and political role. Trade unions emerged in the twentieth century as an important and recognised party in the wage bargain. In the ninetieth century trade unions did have not have such an importance on the political and economic factors in the capitalist society. Similarly under capitalist systems universal suffrage has been achieved, allowing all influence on matters of the economy, even at some small level. Universal suffrage has allowed for the rise of social democratic parties across Europe, whose policies have sought to address the redistributive inequalities experienced in capitalism. Welfare systems, social housing and social unemployment relief are to mention a few of the redistributive measures taken by socialist democratic parties. Neo-Marxists express an alternative argument regarding the collapse of Soviet Union and its effects on Marxism. The conditions for the proletarian revolution to occur and for communism to be established, were different from those economic and social conditions of early twentieth century Russia. Marx believed that the revolution would occur in an industrial nation like Britain, a nation with both national and global industry. Russia was not an industrialised nation to this extent in the early twentieth century, and therefore a Marxian communist society was never established under the Soviet Union. Kellner points out, â€Å"Marxism has been traditionally a theory of class, one which defines the concept of class based on different power groupings. The fact that the Soviet Union collapsed can ultimately be traced to the corruption and bureaucratisation of it ruling class. It never overcame the problem of alienated labour† (Magnus and Cullenberg 1995:4). Zhang Longxi in a similar v ein views communism under the Soviet Union as dead, but Marxism as a theory is â€Å"very much alive† (Magnus and Cullenberg 1995:5). After examining the Marxist critique of capitalism it can be concluded that the critique of capitalism was a critique of ninetieth century capitalism, which can no longer apply to contemporary capitalism. Capitalism for the most part of the twentieth century has evolved to meet the needs of popular demand. Class antagonism is not the same as Marx described, there is no longer a fierce class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, class de-alignment has taken hold of Western capitalist societies. Neo liberalism has become dominant throughout the globe. It is no longer just Western Capitalist societies that have adapted the neo-liberal free market approach to economics but also developing countries. Despite inequality still arising within free market capitalism, opportunity is also created. Free trade allows for growth and increases a nations prosperity. The recent global financial crash has propelled Marxs critique back to the forefront of political debate. Yet capitalis m still prevails, but what occur from its failings are new developments to remedy the failings created by capitalism. Obama healthcare package in the United States, a traditional strict free market capitalist society, is evident to this fact. Marx critique of capitalism thus underestimated the ability for capitalism to restructure itself. Bibliography Desai, M ‘Marxs Political Economy, in T.Bottomore (eds) (1981) Modern Interpretations of Marx,Oxford; Basil Blackwell Fukuyama, F (1992) The End of History and The Last Man,Harmondsworth; Penguin Heywood, A. (2007) Foundations in Politics,Basingstoke; Palgrave Macmillan Hughes, J. (2003) Understanding Classical Sociology,London; Sage Publications Maun, B, Cullenberg, S. (1995) Whither Marxism? Global Crises in International Perspective,London; Routledge Marx, K, Engels, F. (1985) The Communist Manifesto; with an Introduction by A.J.P Taylor,London; Penguin Ryner, J. (2000) Capitalist Restructuring, Globalisation and the Third Way: Lessons from the Sweedish model,London; Routledge Websites Centre for Economic and Social Justice (2010) ‘Louis Kelsos Critique of Karl MarxsDas Kapital http://www.cesj.org/thirdway/almostcapitalist.htm Objectivist Centre (2010) ‘Marx Surplus Theory of Value http://objectivistcenter.org/cth1298-Marxs_Surplus_Value_Theory.aspx

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Career and Life Development in Erin Brockovich

The movie Erin Brockovich (2000) is a perfect illustration of the life-long and continuous development of every individual and the surprising ability with which a woman confronted by social and familial constraints is able to build her agency to be relevant to society.The film, directed by Steven Soderbergh, stars Julia Roberts in the lead role as Erin Brockovich and was based on the real life story of Erin Brockovich and her leadership in the Hinkley town’s fight against the water polluting activities of the energy giant Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG & E).More importantly, the film reveals the tremendous capacity of human beings to rise above their individual and personal hardships and pursue causes that often seem impossible or even unattainable.At first, Brockovich’s narrative is one that seems to be predetermined. Twice divorced and left to fend for her self and three young children, Erin appears to be in a disparate situation as her career prospects are cons trained by single motherhood and unemployment.Things go even worse when she figures in a car accident and her lawyer, Edward Masry, fails to land her a settlement for a personal injury suit. Thus, Erin is portrayed to be a victim of unfortunate events beyond her control and which have often left her helpless to change the course of her life.Erin’s identity is therefore established as a single mother and a woman whose experiences of failed marriage, unemployment, and unfortunate accident define the unconventional ways with which she copes with her difficulties.On the other hand, it is these clearly through these experiences that Erin’s individual capacities are honed and strengthened, reflecting Erikson & Erikson’s (1996) belief that encounters with periodic crises enable individuals to build up their resources for resolving problems. In Erin’s case, the absence of prospects forced her to ask for assistance from her lawyer by hiring her at his law firm.Thi s action would later prove to be both an opportunity and a challenge for her and a turning point in her career as she stumbles upon intriguing medical records of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG & E) placed in the real estate files.Her later decision to continue investigating the connection between real estate and the energy giant’s medical records and to be involved in the prosecution of the PG & E after she discovers that it has been dumping toxic waste that threatens the water supply and health of the town of Hinkley represent a major shift in Erin’s narrative and in turn, her identity, from the disparate single mother to an individual concerned with social and ethical issues.Thus, Erin’s involvement with the case represents another important development in her life, one that could possibly result in gains or in losses for herself and the community she chose to be identified with. (Baltes, 1987; Elder, 1998)In retrospect, Erin’s unlikely triump h over an influential and moneyed adversary is the outcome of her individual persistence and strong sense of ethics and responsibility as well as the availability of social support that enables her to pursue her own development despite the painful reality of previous failures and frustrations and the presence of constraints.It is in this aspect that Erin’s story resonates with the lived realities and experiences of its audience, especially in terms of fulfilling their need for development and coming to terms with changes in career, relationships, and life in its entirety, as it shows that learning and human development does not stop with divorce, single motherhood, or failure. On the other hand, they represent new opportunities and challenges with which individuals can draw meaningful lessons to grow from.Works Cited:Baltes, P. G. (1987) Theoretical Propositions of Life-Span Developmental Psychology. Developmental Psychology, 23: 611-626.Elder, G. H. (1998) â€Å"The Life Co urse and Human Development,† Handbook of Child Psychology, William Damon (Ed), 5th Ed. New York: Wiley, Volume I, 939-991.Erikson, Erik & Erikson, Joan (1996) The Life Cycle Completed. New York: W.W. Norton.Soderbergh, S. (2000). Erin Brockovich. United States.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Present Status and Future Refinements Essay

Present Status and Fut ure Refinement s Jacqueline Fawcett, Ph. D. , F. A. A. N. Abstract The central concepts and themes of t he discipline of nursing are identified and formalized as nursing’s metaparadigm. Examples illustrate the direction provided by the metaparadigm for theory development. Refinements of the metaparadigm through conceptual models and programs of nursing research are proposed. T he discipline of nursing will advance only through continuous and systematic development and testing of nursing knowledge. Several recent reviews of the status of nursing theory development indicate that nursing has n o established tradition of scholarship. Reviewers have pointed out that most work appears unfocused and uncoordinated, as each scholar moves quickly from one topic to another and as few scholars combine their efforts in circumscribed areas (Chinn, 1983; Feldman, 1980; Hardy, 1983; Roy, 1983; Walker, 1983). Broad areas for theory development’ are, however, beginning to be recognized. Analysis of past and present writings of nurse scholars indicates that theoretic and empirical work has always centered on just a few global oncepts and has always dealt with certain general themes. This paper identifies these central concepts and themes and formalizes them as nursing’s metaparadigm. Examples are given to illustrate the direction provided by the metaparadigm for theory development. The paper continues with a discussion o f refinements of t he metaparadigm needed at the levels of ja cqueline Fawcett, Ph. D. , F. A. A. N. , i s Associate Professor, and Section Chairperson, Science and Role Development, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Page 84 disciplinary matrices and exemplars nd concludes with proposals for future work needed to advance to the discipline of nursing. Present Status of the Metaparadigm of Nursing The metaparadigrn of any discipline i s a statement or group of statements identifying its relevant phenomena. These statements spell out the phenomena of interest in a most global manner. No attempt i s made to be specific or concrete at the metaparadigm level. Eckberg & Hill (1979) explained that the metaparadigm â€Å"acts as an encapsulating unit, or framework, within which the more restricted . . . structures develop† (p. 927). The Central Concepts of Nursing Evidence supporting the existence of a metaparadigm of nursing i s accumulating. A review of the literature on theory development in nursing reveals a consensus about the central concepts of the discipline-person, environment, health, and nursing (Fawcett, 1983; Flaskerud & Halloran, 1980). This consensus i s documented by the following statements: O ne may. . . demarcate nursing in terms of four subsets: 1 ) persons providing care, 2) persons with health problems receiving care, 3) the environment in which care i s given, and 4 ) an end-state, well-being. (Walker, 1971, p. 429) The major concepts identified (from an nalysis of the components, themes, topics, and threads of the conceptual frameworks of 50 baccalaureate nursing programs) were Man, Society, Health, and Nursing. (Yura &Torres, 1975, p. 22) The units person, environment, health, and nursing specify the phenomena of interest to nursing science. (Fawcett, 1978, p. 25) Nursing studies the wholeness or health of humans, reco gnizing that humans are in continuous interaction with their environments. (Donaldson & Crowley, 1978, p. 119) Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship Nursing’s focus i s persons, their environments, their health and nursing itself. Bush, 1979, p. 20) Nursing elements are nursing acts, the p atient, and health. (Stevens, 1979, p. l l ) The foci of nursing are the individual in relation to health, the environment, and the change process, whether it be maturation, adaptation, or coping. (Barnard, 1980, p. 208) Nursing i s defined as the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. (American Nurses‘ Association, 1980, p. 9 ) The four conceptual areas of nursing are: the person receiving nursing; the environment within which the person exists; the health-illness continuum within which the erson falls at the time of the interaction with the nurse; and finally, nursing actions themselves. (Flaskerud, cited in Brink, 1980, p. 665) The do main of nursing has always included the nurse, the patient, the situation in which they find themselves, and the purpose of their being together, or the health of the patient. In more formalized terms, . . . the major components of the nursing [metalparadigm are nursing (as an action), client (human being), environment (of the client and of the nurse-client), and health. (Newman, 1983, p. 388) There i s general agreement that the central oncepts of the discipline of nursing are the nature of nursing, the individual who received nursing care, society-environment, and health. (Chinn, 1983, p. 396) These statements indicate that there i s considerable agreement among scholars as t o the concepts central to the discipline of nursing. In fact, a review of the literature revealed no contradictory statements. RecurringThemes The relationships between and among the concepts-person, environment, health, nursing-are elaborated in recurring themes found in works of nurse scholars since Nightin gale (1859). These themes are listed in Table 1. Summer, 1984, Volumo XVI, blo. 3 Metaparadigm of Nursing TABLE 1 THEMES OF THE YETAPARAWW OF NURSING 1. The principles and laws that govern the life-process, well-being. and optimum function of human beings, sick or well. 2. The patterning of human behavior in interaction with the environment in normal life events and critical life situations. 3. The process by which positive changes in health status are elfected. (Donaldson& Crowley, 1978, p. 113; Gortner, 1980, p. 180) The four central concepts and three recurring themes identify the phenomena central to the discipline of nursing in an abstract, global manner. They represent the metaparadigm. As such, they have provided some direction for nursing theory development. As Newman (1983) explained: It i s within the context of these four major components and their interrelationships that theory development in nursing has proceeded. Theoretical differences relate to the emphasis placed on one or more of the components and to the way in which their relationships are viewed. (p. 388) The relationship between the concepts â€Å"person† and â€Å"health† i s considered in the first theme. Theories addressing this theme describe, explain, or predict individuals‘ behavior during eriods of wellness and illness. Newman’s (1979) theory of health i s one example. This theory includes the concepts of movement, time, space, and consciousness. Newman proposes that â€Å"the expansion of consciousness i s what life, and therefore health, i s a ll about† (p. 66). Another example i s Orem’s (1980) theory of self-care, wh ich maintains that â€Å"self-care and care of dependent family members are learned behaviors that purposely regulate human structural integrity, functioning, and human development† (p. 28). S till another example i s Orern’s theory of self-care deficits. This theory maintains that individuals â€Å"are subject t o healthrelated or health-derived limitations that render them incapable of continuous selftare or dependent care or that result in ineffective or incomplete care† (p. 2 7). The relationships among the concepts †person,â€Å" †environment,† and â€Å"health† are considered in the second theme. Theories addressing this theme Summer, 1B84, Volume XVI, No. 3 describe, explain, or predict individuals’ behavioral patterns as they are influenced by environmental factors during periods of wellness and illness. Such theories place the individuals ithin the context of their surrounding environment rather than considering them in isolation, as in the first theme. Roy and Roberts’ (1981) theory of the person as an adaptive system i s an example. This theory proposes that the person i s a system that adapts to a constantly changing environment. Adaptation i s accomplished through the action of coping mechanisms called the â€Å"regulator† and the â€Å"cognator. † The relationships among the â€Å"person,’’ â€Å"health,† and â€Å"nursing† are considered in the third theme. Environment may also be taken into account here. This heme i s addressed by theories about nursing practice. These theories describe or explain nursing processes or predict the effects of nursing actions. King‘s (1981) theory of goal attainment i s one example. King explains: that a paradigm, or disciplinary matrix, i s more restrictive than a metaparadigm, and that i t â€Å"represents the shared commitments of any disciplinary community, including symbolic generalizations, beliefs, values, and a host of other elements† (p. 926). The authors went on to say, A disciplinary matrix may be seen as the special subculture of a community. It does ot refer to the beliefs of an entire discipline (e. g. biology), but more correctly t o those beliefs of a specialized community (e. g. phage workers in biology). (p. 926) Identification of the metaparadigm i s an important step i n the evolution of a scholarly tradition for nursing. The n e x t step i s r efinement o f t h e metaparadigm concepts and themes, which occurs at the level of the paradigm or disciplinary matrix, rather than at that of the metaparadigm. The Disciplinary Matrix Eckberg and Hill (1979) explained Most disciplines have more than one disciplinary matrix. Each one represents a distinctive frame of reference within which the metaparadigm phenomena are viewed. Furthermore, each disciplinary matrix reflects a particular research tradition by identifying the phenomena that are within its domain of inquiry, the methods that are to be used to investigate these phenomena, how theories about these phenomena are to be tested, and how d ata are to be collected (Laudan, 1981, p. 151). More specifically, the research tradition of each disciplinary matrix includes six rules that encompass all phases of an investigation. The first rule identifies the precise nature f the problem to be studied, the purposes to be fulfilled by the investigation, or both. The second rule identifies the phenomena that are to be studied. The third rule identifies the research techniques that are to be employed and the research tools that are to be used. The fourth rule identifies the settings in which data are to be gathered and the subjects who are to provide the data. The fifth rule identifies the methods to be employed in reducing and analyzing the data. The sixth rule identifies the nature of contributions that the research will make to the advancement of knowledge. (Schlotfeldt, 1975, p. ) In nursing, disciplinary matrices are most clearly exemplified by such conceptual models as Johnson‘s (1980) Behavioral System Model, King’s (1981) Open Systems Model, Levine’s (1973) Conservation Model, Neuman’s (1982) Systems Model, Orem’s (1980) Self-care Model, Rogers’ (1980) Life Process Model, and Roy’s (1984) Adaptation Model. Each Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship Page 85 . . . nurse and client interactions are characterized by verbal and nonverbal communication, in which information i s exchanged and interpreted; by transactions, in which values, needs, and wants of each ember of the dyad are shared; by perceptions of nurse and client and the situation; by self in role of client and self in ro le of nurse; and by stressors influencing each person and the situation in time and space. – (p. 144) Orem’s ( 1 980) theory of nursing systems is another example. This theory maintains that †nursing systems are formed when nurses use their abilities to prescribe, design, and provide nursing for legitimate patients (as individuals or groups) by performing discrete actions and systems of actions† (p. 29). Refinement of the Metaparadigm Metaparadigm of Nursing f these nursing models puts forth a distinctive frame of reference within which the metaparadigm phenomena are viewed. Each provides needed refinement of the metaparadigm by serving as a focus-†ruling some things in as relevent, and ruling others out due to their lesser importance† (Williams, 1979, p. 96). Conceptual models of nursing are beginning to make major contributions to the development of nursing theory. Theories derived directly from King’s model and from Orem’s model were identified earlier. A considerable amount of empirical work designed to test unique nursing theories as well as heories borrowed from other disciplines i s n ow being guided by nursing models. Some of the studies are listed in Table 2. TABLE 2 Examples of Research Derived From Conceptual Models of Nursing Oorothy Johnson’s BehavioralSystem Model -An instrument for theory and research development using the behavioral systems model for nursing: The cancer patient. Part I (Derdiarian, 1983). -An instrument for theory and research development using the behavioral systems model for nursing: The cancer patient. Part II (Derdiarian & Forsythe, 1983). -Achievement behavior in chronically ill children (Holaday, 1 974) Maternal response to their chronically ill infants’ attachment behavior of crying (Holaday, 1981) -Maternal conceptual set development: Identifyingpatterns of maternal response to chronically ill infant crying (Holaday, 1 982) -Development of a research tool : Patient indicators of nursing care (Majesky, Brester, & Nishio, 1 978) Myra Levine’s Conservation Model -Effects of lifting techniques on energy expenditure: A preliminary investigation (Geden, 1 982) – A comparision of two bearing-downtechniques during the second stage of labor (Yeates & Roberts, 1984) Betty Neuman’s Systems Model Effects of information on postsurgical coping (Ziemer. 1 983) Dorothea Orem’s Self-care Model -Application of Orem’s theoretical constructs to selfcare medication behaviors in the elderly (Harper, 1984) -Development of an instrument to measure exercise of self-care agency (Kearney & Fleischer, 1 979) Martha Roger’s Life Process Model -The relationship between identification and patterns of change in spouses’ body images during and after pregnancy (Fawcett, 1977) -Patients’ perceptions of time: Current research (Fitzpatrick, 1 980) -Reciprocy and helicy used t o relate mEGF and wound healing (Gill & Atwood, 1 981) Therapeutic touch as energy exchange: Testing the theory (Ouinn, 1 984) Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model -Needs of cesarean birth parents (Fawcett, 1981) -An exploratory study of antenatal preparation for ce- Page 86 sarean birth (Fawcett & Burritt, in press) -Clinical tool development for adult chemotherapy patients: Process and content (Lewis, Firsich. & Parsell, 1 979) -Content analysis of interviews using a nursing model: A look at parents adapting to the impact of childhood cancer (Smith, Garvis, & Martinson, 1 983) Despite the contributions already made by nursing models to theory development, much more work i s needed. In particular, rules addressing methodology and instrumentation must be specified. Moreover, programs of research emanating from each model must be conducted to refute or validate nursing theories. Programmatic research probably i s carried out most expediently by communities of scientists. Hardy (1983) explained that each community of scientists i s . . . a g roup of persons w h o are aware of their uniqueness and the separate identity of their group. The have a special coherence which separates them from neighboring groups, and this special bond means they have a shared set of values and a common commitment which operates as hey work together t o achieve a common goal. Coordination of their activities may include interaction among the coordination of institutions, organizations, groups, and individuals. Such coordinated groups hold a common perspective, common values and common bonds, a nd they have common sets of activities and functions which they carry out to achieve a common ou tcome. (p. 430) Each community of scientists, then, represents a distinctive subculture, or disciplinary matrix, of the parent discipline. It can be argued that communities of scientists may be formed outside the organizing framework of nursing models. However, it also can be argued that conceptual models of nursing, like the disciplinary matrices of other disciplines, are the most logical nuclei for communities of scientists. This argument i s supported by three facts. First, the curricula of most schools of nursing now are based on conceptual models. Second, most graduate programs and many undergraduate programs offer courses dealing with the content and uses of nursing models. And third, clinical agencies are beginning to organize the delivery of nursing care according to the tenets of conceptual ‘models. image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship Collectively, these facts mean that cademicians, students, clinicians, and administrators are thinking about nursing theory, nursing research, and nursing practice within the context of explicit conceptual models. It i s probable, then, that eventually the development of a ll nursing theory will be directed by nursing models. It may even by possible to categorize seemingly isolate d past and current work according to conceptual models. This should provide more organization for extant nursing knowledge and should identify gaps and needed areas of inquiry more readily than is possible now. Moreover, such an endeavor should identify members of different ommunities of scientists to each other as w ell as t o the larger scientific community. Exemplars S till further refinement of the metaparadigm i s needed a t the most restrictive level-that of the exemplar. Eckberg and Hill (1979) identified the function of an exemplar as permitting â€Å"a way of seeing one’s subject matter on a concrete level, thereby allowing puzzle solving to take place† (p. 927). They went on to explain: For a discipline to b e a science it must engage i n puzzle-solving activity; but puzzle solving can only be carried out if a community shares concrete puzzle solutions, or exemplars. It i s t he exemplar that i s i mportant, not merely the disciplinary matrix, and certainly not merely the general presuppositions of t he community [i. e. , the metaparadigm]. The latter may be important, but they do n ot direct ongoing, dayto-day research. (p. 927) There i s some evidence of exemplars in nursing. This includes but is not limited to Fitzpatrick’s (1980) programmatic research on time perception; studies o effects of information f about a threatening procedure on a patient’s responses to the procedure (e. g. , Hartfied, Cason, & Cason, 1982; Johnson, Fuller, Endress, & Rice, 1978; Ziemer, 19831, and investigations of actors contributing to the outcomes of social support (Barnard, Brandt, Raff, & Carroll, 1984 in press). These researchers are beginning to solve some of the major puzzles of nursing. However, more work i s needed to identify other puzzles and to develop methods for their solutions. Summer, 1984, Volume XVI, No. 3 Metaparadigm of Nursing Con clusion It is time to formally accept the central concepts and themes of nursing as the metaparadigm of the discipline. It i s also time to direct efforts toward furf ther refinement o this metaparadigm by developing specific rules for the empirical work needed to generate nd test nursing theories within the context of conceptual ‘models. The metaparadigm must be refined still further through the developing of new puzzle-solving activities that will provide answers to the most pressing problems encountered by nurse clinicians, educators, and ddministrators. Any one of these activities would in itself make a significant contribution to the discipline; a ll three could quite possibly be the major accomplishments of the decade. ‘As used here, theory development reft. r to generation a nd testing of theory. and encornpasiei †ivory tower† theorizing as well as empirical rewarch. References American Nurses’ As5ocialion. Nursing: A social policy statement. Kansas City, Missouri: ANA, 1980. Barnard, K. E. Knowledge for practice: Direction5 for the future. Nursing Research, 1980. 29, 208-21 2. Barnard, K . E. , Brandt, P. , Raff. 8.. & Carroll, P. (Ed,. ). Social support and families of vulnerable infants. New York: March of Dimes, 1984. Brink, P. 1. Editorial. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 1980, 2, 665-666. Buih, H . A. Models for nursing. Advances i n Nursing Science, 1979, l ( 2 ) . 13-21. Chinn, P. L. Nursing theory development: Where we have been and where we are going. In N. L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A time to speak. New York: McCraw-Hill, 1983. Donaldson, S. K. , & Crowley, D. M . The discipline of nursing. Nursing Outlook, 1978, 26, 113-120. Eckberg, D. L .. & Hill, L. , Jr. The paradigm concept and sociology: A critical review. American Sociological Review, 1979, 44,925-937. Fawcett, 1. The â€Å"what† of theory development. In Theory developmenk What, why, how? (pp. 17-33). New York: National League for Nursing, 1978. Fawcett, 1. (1983). Hallmarks of success in nursing theory development. In P. L. Chinn, (Ed. ), Advances i n nursing theory development (pp. -17). Rockville, Maryland: Aspen. Feldrnan, H. R. Nursing research in the 1980s: Issues and implications. Advances in N ursing Science, 1980, 3(1);85-92. Fitzpatrick, 1. J . Patients perceptions of time: Current research. International Nursing Review, 1980, 27, 148-153, 160. Flaskerud. 1. H. , & Halloran, E. J. Areas of agreement in nursing theory development. Advances in Nursing Science, 1980, 3(1), 1-7. Hardy. M. Metaparadigrnsand theory development. In N. L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A t ime t o speak. New York: McCraw-Hill, 1983. Hartfield. M. k Cason, C. L. , & Cason, C. J . Effects of , information about a threatening procedure on patients‘ expectations and emotional distress. Nursing Research, 1 982,31,202-206. lohnson, D. E . The behavioral system model for nursing. In J . P. Riehl & C. Roy, (Eds. ), Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed. ). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980. Johnson. 1 . E. , Fuller, S . 5.. Endress, M. P . , & Rice, V S. . Altering patients’ responses to surgery: An extension and replication. Research in Nursing and Health, 1978, 1 , 111-121. King. I. M. A theory for nursing: Systems, concepts, process. New York: Wiley, 1981. Neurnan, B . The Neuman systems model: Application t o nursing education and practice. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1982. Newrnan, M. A. Theory development in nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1979. Newrnan, M . A. The continuing revolution: A history of nursing science. I n N. L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A time t o speak. New York: McGrawHill, 1983. Nightingale, F. Notes on nursing: What it is, a nd what it i s not. London: Harrison, 1859. (Reprinted by L i p pincott, 1946) Orem, D. E. Nursing: Concepts of practice (2nd ed. ). New York: McCraw-Hill, 1980. Rogers, M. E . A n introduction to t he theoretical basisk f nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1970. Roy, C. I ntroduction to nursing: An adaptation model. (2nd Ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: PrenticeHall, 1984. Roy, C. Theory development in nursing: Proposal for direction. In N. L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A time t o speak. New York: McCraw-Hill, 1983. Roy, C. , & Roberts, S . L . Theory construction i n nursing: An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1981. Schlotfeldt, R. M. The needs for a conceptual framework, In P . J. Verhonick (Ed. ), Nursing research I. Boston: Little, Brown. 1975. Stevens, 8. J. N ursing theory. Analysis, application, evaluation. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979. Walker, L. 0. Toward a clearer understanding of the concept of nursing theory. Nursing Research, 1971, 20, 428-435. Walker, L. 0. Theory and research in the development of nursing as a discipline: Retrospect and prospect. In N . L. Chaska (Ed. ), The nursing profession: A time to speak. New York: McCraw-Hill, 1983. Williams, C. A. The nature and development of conceptual frameworks. In F. S . Downs & I . W . Fleming, (Eds. ) Issues in nursing research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1979. Ziemer, M. M. Providing patients with information rior t o surgery and the reported frequency of coping behaviors and development of symptoms foll owing surgery. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1982. A Response to D r. J . Fawcett’s Paper: â€Å"The Metaparadigm of Nursing: Present Status and Fut ure Refinement s† June N. Brodie, R. N. , Ph. D. D r. Fawcett’s formulation of a metap aradigm for nursing represents a commendable effort to consolidate competing nursing theories and encompasses enormous potential for the advancement of nursing knowledge, research, and practice meriting serious consideration by nursing une N . Brodie, R. N. , Ph. D . i s Associate Professor of Nursing Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. Summer, 1984, Volume XVI, No. 3 scholars. This response focuses on how she accomplished this task (what she did and how she did it as well as what she didn’t do and what needs to be done). Essentially Dr. Fawcett’s metaparadigm can be viewed as an evolution of a nursing metaparadigm and an organization of the growth of nursing knowledge rather than as a completed and finalized product. To be more explicit, the basis of the paper exhibits the spirit of Darwinian Evolution and ould be treated as a manifestation of Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship a transitional phase i n the competition for the survival of the fitte st (theory). The metaparadigm represents a serious and scholarly attempt to negotiate entry into a different level of the theoretical arena of nursing knowledge. This task was accomplished by examining the concepts derived from the phenomena of the discipline and converging these concepts into a context pertinent to the domain of nursing by providing a structure (a metaparadigm) that has the potential of consolidating disparate nursing theories into Page 87